Liquidity Adjusted (LCAPM)

Acharya and Pedersen (2005) presented a theoretical model to explain asset prices with four types of liquidity risks, thereby modifying the single-factor capital asset pricing model (CAPM) into a liquidity adjusted capital asset pricing model (LCAPM). They argue that expected return on a security is based on:

  1. Return sensitivity of a portfolio or an asset with the market return
  2. Commonality in liquidity of a portfolio or an asset with the market liquidity,
  3. Return sensitivity of a portfolio or an asset to market liquidity
  4. Liquidity sensitivity of a portfolio or an asset to market returns

The empirical method to test the model involves development of portfolios. The steps might vary with different flavors of the research design, however, generally the following steps are taken to test the model

  1. Estimate the measure of illiquidyt for each individual stocks. This can be done using a chosen illiquidity measure, such the Amihud (2002) measure of illiquidity, Hasbrouck (2002) measure, Chalmers and Kadlec (1998) measure of bid-ask spread etc.
  2. Make a number of test portfolios: Returns of these portfolios will serve as dependent variable. These portfolios are created on the basis of illiquidity size, book to market etc. The idea is to capture different aspects of the returns and to see whether the given model explain variations in returns based on different characteristics. In statistical software such as Stata, R, or SAS, this is done pretty easily.
  3. Innovations in illiquidity: Since illiquidity is found to be persistent, it is desirable to estimate innovations over time in illiquidity.
  4. Liquidity betas: From the innovations components derived in step 3, liquidity betas are estimated as a ratio of covariance to variance.
  5. The model is tested using the portfolio returns from step 2 and liquidity betas from step 4. A simple cross-sectional regression such as Fama and McBeth (1973), or time-series regression on each portfolio can be applied.
  6. The model can be tested with the assumption of unconditional or conditional time components. If we want to test the unconditional model, then the innovations in liquidity of step 3 will be estimated using AR() process, where lag terms are identified with appropriate tests. And if we opt for conditional version of the model, then we shall use the multivariate GARCH (MGARCH) model with DVECH (diaognal variation). Therefore, the innovations in step 3 and hence betas in step 4 are estimated as conditional parameters.


  Our Stata Code

We have developed a flexible Stata code that performs all of the above steps, with the application of MGARCH. The code can be modified for different methodologies, such as conditional and unconditional LCAPM, time series and cross-sectional regressions, and forming portfolios from the intersection of size, book-to-market, and illiquidity factors. The code performs the following tasks

  1. Finding liquidity measure of Aminud
  2. winsorizing variables
  3. Finding market illiquidyt
  4. Finding stocks illiquidity
  5. Using AR2 process to control for the persistence in illiquidity
  6. Construct 25 portfolios on illiquidity
  7. Portfolio regressions
  8. Find illiquidity betas
  9. Find the four betas
  10. Descriptive statistics
  11. Fama MacBeth regressions



The code is available for $179 with some example data. If you need data management, i.e. you supply us your data and we do the data merging, cleaning, matching the code to your variables and data frequency, there is an additional fee of $99. For further details, please contact us at:

See our full list of completed projects

Project tags: LCAPM; Liquidity-adjusted CAPM, Acharya and Pedersen (2005), Fama-MacBeth, Capital Asset Pricing Model, StataProfessor, Stata Codes.