Category Archives: Uncategorized

  • 4

tabstat with asdoc in Stata

Category:asdoc,Uncategorized

asdoc makes some elegant tables when used with tabstat command. There are several custom-made routines in asdoc that creates clean tables from tabstat command. asdoc fully supports the command structure and options of tabstat. And, yes asdoc allows one additional statistics, that is, t-statistics alongside the allowed statistics in tabstat. For reporting purposes, asdoc categorizes tabstat commands in two groups:

(1) stats without a grouping variable

(2) stats over a grouping variable.

 

Tabstat Without-by

If statistics are less than variables, the table is transposed, i.e. statistics are shown in columns, while variables are shown in rows

 

Example 49 : One variable, many stats, including t-statistics

sysuse auto, clear  
asdoc tabstat price , stat(min max mean sd median p1 p99 tstat) replace 

 

Example 50 : Many variables, one statistic

asdoc tabstat price mpg rep78 headroom trunk weight length foreign , stat( mean) replace

 

Example 51 : Many variables, many statistics

asdoc tabstat price mpg rep78 headroom trunk weight length foreign , /// 
stat( max mean sd median p1 p99 tstat) replace

 

Tabstat with-by

 

Example 52 :


bysort foreign: asdoc tabstat price mpg rep78 headroom trunk weight length, stat(mean) replace


OR

asdoc tabstat price mpg rep78 headroom trunk weight length, ///
stat(mean) by(foreign) replace

 

Example 53 : By with many variables and many statistics

bysort foreign: asdoc tabstat price mpg rep78 headroom trunk weight length, ///
stat(mean sd p1 p99 tstat) replace

 



  • 0

Fama and MacBeth regression with Shanken correction using asreg

Category:Uncategorized

If you are not yet familiar with asreg, here is a quick start. Implementing the Fama and MacBeth regression using asreg is super-fast and easy. Here are a few posts related to this implementation.

FMB regressions with asreg

FMB regression – what, how and where

FMB regressions with 25-portfolios – An example


The Shanken Correction

In applying standard OLS formulas to a cross-sectional regression, we assume that the right-hand variables β are fixed. The β in the cross-sectional regressions are not fixed, of course, but are estimated in the time-series regression.  Therefore, there might be a sampling error in the estimates of β.  Shanken (1992) suggested a correction to the standard errors of the estimates.


How to do it?

The focus in this post is on the Fama and MacBeth implementation with Shanken () correction. Like with many other commands using asreg, the Shanken correction is fairly easy. The following steps are needed:


1. Find a covariance matrix among the right hand-side variables and write it to a matrix. Suppose variables inour dataset inlcude rm_rf smb and hml, then to find the covariance and write it to a matrix, we would do the following:

cor rm_rf smb hml, cov
matrix S = r(C)  


2. Find the first stage lambda of the RHS variables.

bys portfolios: asreg excess_returns rm_rf smb hml
* Remove uncessary variables
 drop _Nobs _R2 _adjR2 _b_cons 


3. Fama and MacBeth regression: In this last stage, we would use the fmb and shanken option. The shanken option requires the covariance matrix that we created in step 1 above

asreg excess_returns _b_mmrf _b_smb _b_hml , fmb shanken(S)


References

  1. Fama, E. F., & MacBeth, J. D. (1973). Risk, return, and equilibrium: Empirical tests. Journal of political economy81(3), 607-636.
  2. Shanken, J. (1992). On the estimation of beta-pricing models. The review of financial studies5(1), 1-33.


  • 0

Fama – MacBeth (1973) procedure: What, how and where | asreg in Stata

Category:Uncategorized

Fama and MacBeth (1973) procedure can be used in testing asset pricing models and other areas. In this post, my primary focus is on its use in testing asset pricing models.


FMB in asset pricing models

It is actually a three-step process. We would divide the time period into three parts.

1. The first step is to find the assets/portfolios betas in the first period. Some researchers would use these betas to classify assets into portfolios.

2. The second step is to find betas of these portfolios in the second period.

3. The third step is to find the portfolio returns in the third period and test whether the betas from the second period can explain these returns? This step involves:
(i) cross-sectional regressions of the portfolio returns on the portfolio betas in each period.
(ii) averaging coefficients from the cross-sectional regressions across time. The standard errors are adjusted for cross-sectional dependence.


What does asreg do in the above process


asreg with fmb option performs step 3(i) and 3(ii). 

asreg can also help in step (1) where individual betas need to be calculated for each stock. The command might look like
Code:

bys company: asreg returns market_returns if period == 1

This means that for typical asset pricing tests, the researcher has to do step (1) and (2) and arrange the data in a panel format, listing portfolio returns and betas as variables in columns. And then use asreg with fmb option, e.g.

keep if period == 3
xtset company month
asreg returns betas, fmb


Where else FMB regression can be used?

Fama and MacBeth (1973) procedure (i.e step 3(i) and (ii)) is also used in areas other than testing the asset pricing models. You can see one example in my paper, Table 3, column 8, page 264

Shah, Attaullah & Shah, Hamid Ali & Smith, Jason M. & Labianca, Giuseppe (Joe), 2017. “Judicial efficiency and capital structure: An international study,” Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 255-274.




  • 4

Export correlation table to Word with stars and significance level using asdoc

Category:Uncategorized

The updated version of asdoc can now create a table of correlation with significance levels starred at different levels. The new version can be installed by typing the following line in Stata.


Installation of the new version

net install asdoc, from(http://fintechprofessor.com) replace


An Example

sysuse auto, clear
asdoc pwcorr price mpg rep78 headroom trunk weight length turn , star(all) replace nonum


Explanation

Just like with any other Stata command, we would write asdoc as a prefix to the Stata command. In this case, the Stata command is pwcorr which is followed by the variable names. After the comma, we added option nonum, star(all) and replace. These are explained bellow:

star(all) = This option is used to report stars to signfy significance at different levels. These are: ***

  1. *** to show significance at 1% or bellow
  2. ** to show significance at 5% or bellow
  3. * to show significance at 10% or bellow

nonum = Without using this option, asdoc will report numeric numbers as column headers

replace = This option replaces any existing file

You would be interested in this blog entry where I show several useful options of asdoc that can be used with correlation tables.




  • 10

Fama and MacBeth regression over 25 Portfolios using asreg in Stata

Category:Uncategorized

Antonio has asked the following question

Dear Sir,
I was wondering how to run a Fama and MacBeth regression over 25 Portfolios. In accordance with your code, the first variable needs to be the dependent variable while the following variables are considered as independent variables. Basically, I would like to calculate the risk premium of a factor over the 25 value and size-sorted portfolios. Therefore in my case, I would have more dependent variables and just one dependent variable.
Thanks for your availability


Answer

To answer your question, I have preareed a dummy dataset, which you can download by typing the following in Stata command window.

use http://fintechprofessor.com/ff.dta, clear

So before running the Fama and MacBeth regressions, this is how the data needs to be structured.

The data is in a long format where the portfolios are tracked by a variable, called the panelvar. The portfolio returns are written in a separate variable, in our case, it is named as returns. The panelvar has values from 1, up to 25. The first 10 observations of the portfolios 1 and 2 look like:

. list in 1/10, noob
   +---------------------------------------------+
   |    mofd   P   returns       size        MTB |
   |---------------------------------------------|
   |  1993m6   1      .038    64.0125   5.224508 |
   |  1993m7   1     .0539   71.86839   4.505145 |
   |  1993m8   1    -.0639   27.82528   1.888283 |
   |  1993m9   1    -.0328   20.08383   7.730755 |
   | 1993m10   1     .0249   59.34985   8.961844 |
   |---------------------------------------------|
   | 1993m11   1     .0657   47.42625   3.766557 |
   | 1993m12   1     .0408   81.47429   5.148165 |
   |  1994m1   1     .0185   42.39914   5.375627 |
   |  1994m2   1     .0323   62.36839   4.882884 |
   |  1994m3   1   -.00598   64.79323   1.281697 |
   +---------------------------------------------+
 . list in 101/110, noob
   +---------------------------------------------+
   |    mofd   P   returns       size        MTB |
   |---------------------------------------------|
   |  1993m6   2     .0114   41.16883   4.549813 |
   |  1993m7   2    -.0158   10.09915   2.136258 |
   |  1993m8   2    .00616   73.43023   2.924793 |
   |  1993m9   2    -.0141   58.28651   7.608449 |
   | 1993m10   2     .0129    63.4972   1.137969 |
   |---------------------------------------------|
   | 1993m11   2    -.0223    16.1786   1.368057 |
   | 1993m12   2     .0322   64.10929   6.226629 |
   |  1994m1   2    -.0144   54.48264   7.883276 |
   |  1994m2   2     .0388   74.99379   1.362888 |
   |  1994m3   2     .0345   68.66164   7.102628 |
   +---------------------------------------------+



How to run the Fama and MacBeth regression

My asreg command is available on SSC, to download it, type:

ssc install asreg, replace

asreg can estimate three types of regressions: (1) cross-sectional regressions (2) rolling window regressions and (3) Fama and MacBeth regressions. You can read more details here.

Since our main focus here is on the Fama and MacBeth procedure, the discussion this point onwards will use option fmb of the asreg program. The syntax is:

asreg depvar indepvars, fmb

The data must be first declared as panel data with the xtset command. In our dataset, we have P as the panel variable and mofd as the time variable, therefore, to declare the data as panel data, the xtset command would be:

xtset P mofd

In our dataset, we have the variable returns as the dependent variable and size and MTB as the two independent variables. The command for the Fama and MacBeth regression would be:

. asreg returns  size MTB , fmb


Explanation

retunrs = The dependent variable

size and MTB = independent variables


  • 1

asdoc Unicode issue | Stata to MS Word

Category:Uncategorized

For those who are not yet familiar with asdoc, asdoc can be downloaded from SSC and can be used with almost all Stata commands. Here is a short blog post that shows how asdoc can be used with any Stata command. You can also watch several YouTube videos that show the use of asdoc


asdoc installation

 ssc install asdoc


The problem

Since asdoc uses RTF file format, any Unicode character passed from Stata to the RTF file will be incorrectly shown in the output file. For example, a variable has the following value label which is correctly shown on Stata screen, but when written with asdoc, it is distorted.

Stata view: Don’t know
asdoc view: 

The solution

If you have Stata 14 or higher, then the good news is that you can use unicode command to change the file encoding. Specifically, the subcommand convertfile of unicode command can be extremely useful here. In the following example, I shall download an example dataset, called unicode.dta from my site, and then tabulate the variable M25 with asdoc, write the results to Myfile.doc and convert the coding and write the results to a new file, Myfile_new.doc

use http://fintechprofessor.com/unicode.dta, clear
asdoc tab M25, replace

The file generated by asdoc looks like this, the last line of the file highlights the given issue.

Now lets try the unicode solution.

unicode convertfile  Myfile.doc  Myfile_new.doc, dstencoding(Windows-1252) replace

  • 0

asdoc – custom table title | MS Word | Stata

Category:Uncategorized

For those who are not yet familiar with asdoc, asdoc can be downloaded from SSC and can be used with almost all Stata commands. Here is a short blog post that shows how asdoc can be used with any Stata command. You can also watch several YouTube videos that show the use of asdoc

asdoc installation

 ssc install asdoc


Customizing the table title

The focus of this blog entry is to highlight some of the tricks that can be used in asdoc to customize the table titles. asdoc produces some generic table titles with many Stata commands. However, the default table titles can be replaced by using the option title(). In the following text, I discuss this and several other features of asdoc to modify the table titles:


1. Custom titles

If custom titles are needed, just use option title( title text). See the following example.

sysuse auto
asdoc tab rep78 , title(My cutom table title) replace


2. Title not required

We can use an empty title if the table title is not required. In the following example, I am using the backslash (\) inside the title option. This will produce empty title in the document.

asdoc tab rep78 , title(\) replace


3. Title is needed in italics

We can use many RTF directives inside the title option. So to get the title in italics font, the code would be:

asdoc tab rep78 , title(\i My custom table title) replace


4. Title with bigger font size

The default in asdoc is to report table titles in boldface and font size of 10pt. If bigger or smaller font size is needed, again we can pass the RTF directive \fs# to the document. So to produce a title with 14 pt, we shall type:

asdoc tab rep78 , title(\fs28 My custom table title) replace



  • 0

The Error option matrow() not allowed” when using asdoc with tabulate command

Category:Uncategorized

Ronald asked the following question: I am getting the error when using asdoc with tabulate command.
option matrow() not allowed
r(198);

I asked Ronald to send his dataset for a closer look. Upon inspection, it turned out that Ronald was trying to tabulate values of a string variable, and asdoc had problem with that. As a temporary solution, I suggested the following two steps.

Step 1: Convert the string variable to numeric variable with value labels. The good news is that we can do that in one line of code using the encode command. So assume that the string variable name is country, we shall encode it:

encode country, gen(country_new)

where country_new is a new is a new variable with value labels.

Step 2: Now we can use it with asdoc, so to tabulate it and send the output to MS Word, we type:

asdoc tab country_new, replace


  • 0

Reshape data in Stata – An easy to understand tutorial

Category:Blog,Uncategorized Tags : 

From wide to long format

Suppose we have the data in the following format

 +-------------------------------------------------------+
 | id   sex   inc80   inc81   inc82   ue80   ue81   ue82 |
 |-------------------------------------------------------|
 |  1     0    5000    5500    6000      0      1      0 |
 |  2     1    2000    2200    3300      1      0      0 |
 |  3     0    3000    2000    1000      0      0      1 |
 +-------------------------------------------------------+

The above structure is known as the wide format. If we wish to convert it to a long format, such as the one given below,

 +-----------------------------+  
| id year sex inc ue |
|-----------------------------|
| 1 80 0 5000 0 |
| 1 81 0 5500 1 |
| 1 82 0 6000 0 |
| 2 80 1 2000 1 |
| 2 81 1 2200 0 |
|-----------------------------|
| 2 82 1 3300 0 |
| 3 80 0 3000 0 |
| 3 81 0 2000 0 |
| 3 82 0 1000 1 |
+-----------------------------+

We shall just type

reshape long inc ue, i(id) j(year)

Explanation

Since we need to convert the data from a wide format to a long format, this is why the command that we wrote was reshape long. After that, we have to specify the names of the variables which are in the wide format. In our dataset, there are 2 variables which are INC and UE. Both of these variables have a numeric part. That numeric part is what we call the variable J. We specify this J variable in the option j(new variable). In our dataset, there is no variable with the name year, however, we wrote the option j(year) so that a new variable is created for the numeric values of 80, 81, and 82. We also specified option i(id), where option i needs an existing variable that is a unique panel identifier.

To practice the above yourself, here is the source data and code.

use http://www.stata-press.com/data/r15/reshape1
list
reshape long inc ue, i(id) j(year)
list


Reshape long to wide

Continuing from the previous example, we can reshape the data back to wide format by

reshape wide inc ue, i(id) j(year)

email-subscribers-form id=”{form-id}”


  • 5

Exporting ttest results from Stata to Word using asdoc

Category:asdoc,Blog,Stata Programs,Uncategorized

 

asdoc installation

If you have not already studied the features of asdoc, you can visit this page that lists the table of contents of what asdoc can do. You can also read this one paragraph introduction to asdoc. The following line of code will install asdoc from SSC

ssc install asdoc
help asdoc

 

Reporting t-tests with asdoc

Before we make the t-test results table for our example data, let us breifly explore the options available in asdoc for making a t-test results table.

Whether it is one-sample t-test or two-sample or other forms, asdoc manages to report the results line by line for each test. asdoc also allows accumulating results from different runs of t-tests. For this purpose, the option rowappend of asdoc really comes handy. With the sub-command ttest , we can use the following options of asdoc to control asdoc behavior.

(1) replace / append

(2) save(filename)

(3) title(text)

(4) fs(#)

(5) hide.

(6) stats()

(7) rowappend.

These options are discussed in detail in Section 1 of asdoc help file. Option stats and rowappend are discussed below:

 

Option stat()

Without stat() option, asdoc reports the number of observations (obs), mean, standard error, t-value, and p-value with t-tests. However, we can select all or few statistics using the stat option. The following table lists the keywords and their details for reporting the desired statistics.

keyword details
n Number of observations
mean Arithmetic mean
se Standard error
df degrees of freedom
obs Number of observations
t t-value
p p-value
sd standard deviation
dif difference in means if two-sample t-test

 

Option rowappned

ttest tables can be constructed in steps by adding results of different t-tests to an existing table one by one using option rowappend. There is only one limitation that the t-tests are performed and asdoc command applied without writing any other results to the file in-between.

 

An example

Suppose we have the following data set with variables r0, r1, r2, r3, and y. The data can be downloaded into Stata by

use http://fintechprofessor.com/ttests.dta, clear

The variables ro-r3 are the numeric variables for which we would like to conduct one-sample ttest whereas variable y is a numeric date variable that tracks years. We wish to conduct a ttest for each of the r0-r3 variables and in each year and make one table from all such tests.

 

Without using a loop

 asdoc ttest R0==0 if Y==2009, replace title(One Sample t-test Results)
asdoc ttest R1==0 if Y==2009, rowappend
asdoc ttest R2==0 if Y==2009, rowappend
asdoc ttest R3==0 if Y==2009, rowappend
asdoc ttest R0==0 if Y==2010, rowappend
asdoc ttest R1==0 if Y==2010, rowappend
asdoc ttest R2==0 if Y==2010, rowappend
asdoc ttest R3==0 if Y==2010, rowappend
asdoc ttest R0==0 if Y==2011, rowappend
asdoc ttest R1==0 if Y==2011, rowappend
asdoc ttest R2==0 if Y==2011, rowappend
asdoc ttest R3==0 if Y==2011, rowappend
asdoc ttest R0==0 if Y==2012, rowappend
asdoc ttest R1==0 if Y==2012, rowappend
asdoc ttest R2==0 if Y==2012, rowappend
asdoc ttest R3==0 if Y==2012, rowappend

And appreciate the results

 

Explanation

1.In the first line of code, we wrote asdoc ttest in the beggining of the line. This is how we use asdoc with Stata commands. We just add asdoc to the beggining of any Stata command and that’s all.

2. We used two options of asdoc in the first line of code: the replace and title(). Replace will replace any existing file with the name Myfile.doc and title will add the specific test as a title to the output file.

3. In the second line of code, we added option rowappend() that will append the results to the existing table in the file Myfile.doc

4. And the process continues untill all ttests are estimated.